According to indexdotcom, the Egyptian flora is poor, because it counts only 2000 species, approximately, of phanerogams: this is due to the physical aspect of the region, the periodic flooding of the Nile valley and the dryness of the surrounding deserts. Various zones can be distinguished in the vegetation of Egypt. First of all, a Mediterranean coastal area where there is a vegetation of small shrubs, but without those characteristic of the Mediterranean scrub and annual or perennial herbaceous plants in which the coastal species, the psammophiles and those that live on the coastal rocks are widely represented. Then there is the desert area in which they can be distinguished: the Libyan region, the northern Arabian and the southern Arabian: in this area we find abundant Graminaceae, Chenopodiacee,, Borraginacee, Leguminosae (especially Acacia tortilis, A. Ehrenbergiana, A. Arabica. Var nilotica, A. Seyal, A. Albida, from portamento caespitose-thorny; some Astragalus), several Plantaginacee, the Salvadora persica especially in the northern Arabian region, various Compotes. On the edge of the oasis are: Tamarix nilotica and T. amplexicaulis, Citrullus colocynthis or coloquintide, the gigantic Calotropis procera inaddition to a herbaceous vegetation of Graminaceae, Ciperaceae, Chenopodiacee etc. The cultivated area of the Nile has a very interesting aspect: in the Delta are cultivated the Alexandrian clover, the broad bean, the rice, the cereals, the sugar cane, the cotton, although this crop is threatened by many parasites. The spontaneous vegetation consists of Tamarix, Salix safsaf etc.; among the groups of palms there are gigantic Ficus sycomorus and then Zizyphus spina Christi, Acacia arabicavar. nilotic. Near the cities, Albizzia lebbek and Farnesiana, Zizyphus lotus, Lawsonia inermis, Opuntia ficus indica, mulberries, oranges, lemons, garnets, figs, etc. In the waters is the famous papyrus, but in very small quantities, then Nymphaea lotus white flowers, N. caerulea with blue flowers, Hydrocaritacea with showy white flowers, Ottelia alismoides, indi Najas, Ceratophyllum, Utricularia inflexa and stellaris, Lemna gibba and numerous other hydrophytes.
The arboreal vegetation is very scarce because from time immemorial the residents destroyed the forests: as such, the surfaces scattered with sunt (Acacia nilotica) are not considered. The plants of the oases are mostly of European origin; the others belong to the African flora.
The character of the fauna is essentially Mediterranean, but the presence of the Nile valley has allowed a notable immigration, especially in Upper Egypt, of Ethiopian elements. Among the mammals, scarce, the monkeys are lacking in Lower and Middle Egypt, in Upper Egypt they are represented by some Ethiopian species. Among the Carnivores, the striped hyena, the jackals, the Nile fox, the marsh lynx, various genets. Characteristic are the Ichneumons. Among the antelopes, the Antilope dorcas it is frequent throughout the Nile valley. Characteristic of the desert area are many rodents including the pyramid mouse and various other jumping mice. Hedgehogs and porcupines are not uncommon. Birds are represented by many species; among these we will mention the ibis, once abundant throughout Egypt where it was considered sacred, and now inhabiting the regions of the Upper Nile where it nests, various waders, passerines, palmipeds including the Egyptian goose, birds of prey among the such as the griffon vulture, the Egyptian kite, eagles, hawks. Among the reptiles the Nile crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus), lizards, monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus), tortoises and various chameleons; important poisonous snakes including Cleopatra’s asp (Naja haie) and ceraste (Cerastes cornutus). There are various Amphibians and freshwater fishes, among which the electric malapterur and the polypterus deserve to be mentioned.
Among the insects the classic sacred scarab (Atheucus sacer) revered by the ancient Egyptians, the migratory grasshopper, known since ancient times for the damage it causes, and an enormous array of species representing the characteristic world of entomates. The remarkable fauna de; terrestrial and freshwater molluscs from the region.