Hungary Population Density
Density of population and settlement. – According to the 1930 census, Hungary has a population density of 93.3 residents per sq. km, far from relevant if we take into account that the region is flat and well cultivated. In the various committees the population is divided as follows:
According to 800zipcodes, the highest densities are found in the territory of the recent settlement of Alföld, which, depopulated by the Turkish invasion, was then colonized. The 10 committees of it have an average density of 115 residents per sq. Km., With a maximum in that of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskún, which extends for the most part on the so-called Hungarian Mesopotamia, and a minimum in the Bihar committee, which is fertile, but has remained devoid of urban centers, passed to Romania. An average density of 81 residents has the northern hilly region, with a minimum of 54 (the lowest in the whole state) in the Abaúj-Torna committee (which includes the eastern slope of the Eperjes hills). Pannonia in its 10 committees has an average density of 73 residents per sq. km., with maximum values in the committees facing the Piccolo Alföld,
Throughout Hungarian Mesopotamia and Alföld, large villages prevail, with single-storey houses built of mud, straw, reeds, with an average population ranging from 3000 to 10 thousand residents, but which can sometimes reach up to 30 or 40 thousand residents The surface of the municipalities is vast and, similar to what happens in some regions of Puglia and Sicily, in the morning the farmers swarm towards their fields (on foot, on horseback, on wagons, sometimes even by means of secondary railways), returning in the evening to the village. However, since this way can wasteful and uneconomical, besides the fact that in the coming times to harvest the field can not be totally abandoned, the farmer has built in its possessions of temporary dwellings (ungh. Tanya), which, over time, especially in the vicinity of the major municipalities, have become permanent homes and have given rise to a dispersed settlement. In Felföld the houses, although low and with only the ground floor, are generally smaller, lacking large-scale livestock farming; the village has a different size, but never as vast as in Alföld. In Pannonia the most frequent village has on average from 1000 to 3000 residents, except in the Somogy committee, where it reaches just a thousand residents. According to the latest census, 111 centers appeared to have a population of over 10 thousand residents and of these 45 exceeded 20 thousand and 12 exceeded 50 thousand. Overall, 42.6% of the total population lived in the 111 centers; but since even in the larger localities the population has an agricultural character, this data has only a statistical value. The 12 most important cities are listed above.
Notable minorities, protected by special rules, are only the German, the Slovak and the Serbo-Croatian. However, they do not form compact groups, but live mixed with the rest of the population, almost always in groups not contiguous to the territories of the respective national states. Given the centuries-old union with Austria, the Germans had great influence in the past and they were responsible for the flourishing of the main cities (Budapest: 34.3% of Germans in 1880, but only 3.8% in 1930). Some had already come as colonists at the time of the Arpadi, but the majority flocked after the expulsion of the Turks, first as private individuals and then, at the time of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, as state colonists. At first they came from neighboring regions (Lower Austria, Moravia, Bohemia) and were based in the Baconia Forest, then came the Bavarians who settled among the M. Vértes and Cegléd. Settlers from Württemberg, Baden and Rhineland followed, who found free land only further to E. and more and S., while the last ones (from Alsace and Hanover) had to go to Bačka and Banat. Now about 330 municipalities have a majority of German population. The Slovaks are almost all small farmers, who are found in the surroundings of Budapest and in the two committees of Békés and Csanád, between Körös and Maros, near the Romanian border. Third in number is the Serbo-Croatian minority; Croats live in three groups in the SW. of Nagykanizsa, around Sopron and in Baranya, the Serbs are for the most part in the latter region and in the committees of SE. It turns out that 75% of the populations that make up the minorities know Hungarian, so that this language is known to 98% of the residents.
Less homogeneous than from the ethnic point of view is Hungary with regard to religious denominations (see below: Cults). Jews preferably live in cities, where they make up about one eighth of the population (Budapest: 20.2% in 1930) and occupy a very important place in commerce and liberal professions, so much so that there has been no lack of restrictive measures against them (numerus clausus for Israelite students in universities).
The great majority of the active population finds work in agriculture (50.8% in 1930). Industry ranks second among occupations, employing 22.2% of the residents (1920: 18.1), so that Hungary must now consider itself an agrarian-industrial state.