Madhya Pradesh, India
According to agooddir.com, Madhya Pradesh is a state in the central part of India, formed in 1956 from the former states of Madhya Bharat, Bhopal, Vindhya Pradesh and most of the former state of Madhya Pradesh. It borders the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the west, Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, and Maharashtra to the south. Area – 296.48 thousand square meters. km, population ~ 64 million people. The administrative center is Bhopal. About 4/5 of the population speaks Hindi and related dialects, the rest speaks Marathi, Rajasthani and the languages of the tribal peoples of Gondi, Korku, Bhil.
Madhya Pradesh occupies the northern part of the Deccan plateau, the Narbada river valley, the Vindhya mountains and most of the Malwa lava plateau. In the north, its territory extends into the Indo-Gangetic plain. The relief is dominated by hilly plateaus and low mountains, composed mainly of basalts and crystalline rocks.
The climate is tropical, monsoonal, arid in the northwest and more humid in the south and southeast. Temperature in summer from +22 to +48 °C, in winter from +4 to +23 °C. Precipitation from 700 to 1600 mm per year; rainy season from June to October. The composition of natural vegetation is dominated by deciduous forests (about 3/4 of the territory of the state), there are valuable tree species (teak, sal), red earth and black soils (regura) are common. In Madhya Pradesh there are national parks (Kahna, Bandhavgarh, Shivpuri), nature reserves. In Khajuraho, a complex of temples, built between 954-1050, has been preserved.
The main attractions of the state are the Khajuraho temple complex (10-11 centuries), famous for its elegant sculptures, as well as the ancient cities of Gwalior, Indore, Bhopal, Ujjain.
In Sanchi, a small village 46 km northeast of Bhopal, outstanding monuments of early Buddhist architecture have been preserved – temples, stupas, monasteries. The main attraction of Sanchi is the first ever stupa, the Great Sanchi Stupa. It was erected by order of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. BC e. The reliefs depict not only Indians, but also people in Greek clothes. Conceived as a visual symbol of the Wheel of Dharma, the Sanchi stupa served as a prototype for all subsequent stupas. The nearby forty-ton column of Ashoka was brought here from Chunar.
At the beginning of the Shunga dynasty (2nd century BC), the Great Stupa was desecrated (if not completely demolished), but was soon rebuilt and expanded twice its original size. At the end of the 2nd c. BC e. Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodor erected a column five miles from the stupa. A few decades later, four stone gates appeared, decorated with exquisite carvings.
Sanchi continued to be a major center of Buddhist art until the 12th century, when Islam established itself in central India, and Buddhist shrines began to decline. Among the buildings of the 1st millennium AD. e. The temple at number 17, dating from the 5th century, enjoys special fame. n. e., one of the earliest Buddhist temples in India. Abandoned for centuries, the monuments of Sanchi were rediscovered and described by the British in 1818. A hundred years later, a museum was opened here, and in 1989 local attractions were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The state has 9 national parks and 25 reserves, which cover a total area of 10,862 km², which is 11.4% of the forest area of Madhya Pradesh or 3.52% of the total area of the state.
Kanha National Park
One of the largest wildlife sanctuaries in India. Tigers and leopards, mighty wild gaura bulls, graceful barasingha deer, muntyak deer, sloth bears, jackals, porcupines, hyenas, jungle cats, pythons, hares, all kinds of monkeys and mongooses live here.
For bird watchers, Kanha National Park is a real paradise, as there are more than 300 species of birds, including very rare ones. Here it is fashionable to see storks, teals, pintails, herons, peacocks, bushy wild hens, green doves, owls and many other birds.
Kanha National Park is one of the first to enter the “Project Tiger” – a government program created in 1973 to protect Bengal tigers.
Climate: tropical. In summer it is hot and humid (maximum temperature – +40C, minimum – +23C). In winter – from + 23C to + 11C. The monsoon season is from mid-June to early October.
Season: The best time to visit the park is from mid-October to the end of May.
Bandawgari National Park
Situated in the Vindya Mountains. The park has a diverse fauna including panthers, sambars and gaurs. Airport: Jabalpur, 166 km. Railway station: Umaria, 34 km.
Bandavgari is home to the largest density of tigers in all of India. You will be amazed by the richness of the local nature. The park was originally known as the home of the white tiger. In addition to tigers, sambar, chital, nilgai, chinkara and wild pigs also live in Bandavgari. You will also be amazed by the various shrines within the park dating back to the first century BC. There is also the Bandavgari Fort, which is over 2000 years old.
Shivpuri National Park
Open forests and lake. Fauna: chinkara, chousingha (four-horned antelope), nilgai, tiger, leopard, waterfowl.
Airport: Jhansi, 95 km.
Season: February – May.
Shivpuri National Park is located in the resort area of India, in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the park is named after the city of the same name, in which it is located. Also nearby is the city of Gwalior. The area of Shivpuri in the distant past was the summer residence of the rulers of Gwalior. In the city itself, you can observe the palace of the Gwalior Maharajas with a marble statue of the Maharani Shakya Raja, the latter is the object of worship of the Indians. Also, the city of Shivpuri became famous for the complex of Jain temples.
The Shivpuri National Park was established in 1958 as a hunting reserve of the Scindia rulers of Gwaliur. Later, the protected area became the Madhya Bharat National Park, and only after that – the Shivpuri Park. Today, the park is protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. The main attraction of the park are its majestic inhabitants – tigers. Of the vegetation, such tree species as sal and teak are recognized as the most remarkable.
The flora of the park is dominated by mixed vegetation. Numerous artificial lakes (Sakhya Sagar Lake is especially noteworthy) and streams have been created within the park. All this natural diversity cannot but attract a large number of animals and birds to the park.
As for tigers, these animals are bred in a relatively spacious aviary in protected areas in Madhava, which are part of the Shivpuri park. After the tigers reach a certain age, they can move freely within the boundaries of the park. Tigers can be observed both live (during a safari) and through video cameras placed around Shivpuri.
In addition to tigers, leopards, jackals, wild boars, bears, striped hyenas, crocodiles, cats, various deer, antelopes and gazelles can be seen within Shivpuri Park. Monkeys in the park are represented by the following species: thin-bodied, macaques. Among the avifauna of Shivpuri Park are the demoiselle crane and other cranes, white ibis, geese, cormorants, spoonbills, storks, flycatchers, orioles and other birds.
Climatic conditions in Shivpuri Park are characterized by the following indicators: hot summer, cold winter, long rainy season and monsoons. During the monsoons, the weather becomes milder, but the humidity rises significantly throughout the park.
However, in addition to natural beauties, Shivpuri Park boasts its historical sites. Just look at Castle George, built by Maharaja Rao Jiyaji Scindia in honor of the visit of King George V. This castle is the highest point in the park, with amazing views of Sakhya Sagar Lake from its windows. The palace of Madhava Vilas, the forest summer house of Scindias, is also amazing.
Not far from the Shivpuri park, you can find the Bhadaiya Kunda natural spring, where they produce mineral waters with healing properties.