Top 10 Countries with the Greatest Biodiversity

Top 10 Countries with the Greatest Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the variety of living organisms on Earth, including the different species, ecosystems and genetic variation within those species. This can occur both on land and in water. It includes not only diversity between species, but also within species and between ecosystems. Biodiversity is of great importance to human health and well-being as it depends on many ecosystem services, such as food production, climate regulation and protection against natural disasters.

There are many threats to biodiversity, including deforestation, agriculture, urbanization, overfishing, invasive species, climate change and pollution. These threats have led to a decline in biodiversity around the world. Over the past century, the number of species going extinct has increased significantly, and many are considered endangered or vulnerable. Measures to protect biodiversity are often advocated, such as establishing protected areas, addressing threats and strengthening the resilience of ecosystems.

In this top 10 list we look at the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It is difficult to measure biodiversity precisely. We have taken over the data from the “ Global Biodiversity Index”. This study looks at five groups of animals (birds, fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians) and at a group of plant species. Points are awarded for the percentage of this group that occurs in a country.

10. The United States

Because the United States is so large, the country has a great diversity of biotopes: from tundra to tropical jungle, you will find everything here. This is also reflected in the biodiversity of the country: prairie dogs, all kinds of squirrels, giant sequoias and turtles – there’s a lot to see here!

9. Ecuador

Galapagos penguins, wingless cormorans, Galapagos buzzards and vampire ground finches. Among the rare plants you can find Dracula vampira, Bejaria subsessilis, Juglans neotropica, Gentianella longibarbata and Polylepis microphylla.

8. India

No less than 7 to 8% of the animal species on earth are found in India – you will find lion deer, special frogs, lion-tailed macaques and much more. You will also find the real sandalwood trees here, from which special perfumes are made in India!

7. Peru

With native plant species such as the Machu Picchu Bamboo, Amazon lily, Eucharis, Peruvian sundew, Peruvian wild tomato, there is a lot to see in Peru. The country also ranks fifth among countries worldwide when it comes to diverse amphibians and animals. After Colombia, it is the country with the greatest biodiversity of birds.

75% of Peru’s 122 endangered species are protected, so if you’re considering a visit, it’s important to treat nature with respect!

6. Australia

In Australia you will find a biodiversity that can be a bit daunting! You can encounter all kinds of things in the outback: you will find alligators and crocodiles here, but also the much cuter koala, kangaroo and dingo. In addition to these well-known Australian beasts, you will also see the gang-gang cockatoo, galah, Tasmanian devil, Parma wallaby, the common wombat and the ring-tailed beaver spider. So not for the faint hearted!

Some rare plants that you might encounter with a bit of luck are eucalyptus trees, banksias, bottle herbs, waratahs, kangaroo paws and spider flowers.



Mexico is a biodiverse country and has a large number of plant and animal species that you will not encounter in many places, such as the puma, the lynx and the Mexican gray wolf. The rainforests of Mexico are home to a large number of unique animal species, such as the toucan and spider monkeys. You can also encounter all kinds of unique animal species in the deserts of Mexico, such as the desert kangaroo and the sand cats.


China has a number of unique plant and animal species, such as the panda, red panda, and Chinese crocodile. The rainforests of southern China are home to a large number of unique animal species, such as the black hornbill and the Chinese alligator. You can also encounter all kinds of unique animal species in the mountains of western China, such as the tiger cat and the antelope.


If you go north to the Gobi desert, you can encounter the Gobi gazelle and the chameleon, among others. So you see that China is a country with a great biodiversity, and there is so much more to discover. So if you ever get the chance to go to China, don’t hesitate! You will be amazed at all the unique and beautiful plant and animal species you encounter.

3. Colombia

In Colombia you can indulge yourself when it comes to exotic animals and plants: the giant otter, the peacock and the harpyie all live here in the wild. You will also find the pirarucu, the blue anole, the mountain tapir, the pink dolphin, the Andean rooster-of-the-rock and the titimaki here.


The mountains and rainforests of Colombia are also teeming with life. You will find howler monkeys and the capuchin monkey here. Higher up you will mainly find animals such as the condor and the horseshoe bird. This just goes to show that Colombia is a country with a great biodiversity, and there is so much more to discover!

2. Indonesia

The archipelago of Indonesia contains thousands of islands. There are seven main biogeographical regions based on the largest islands and surrounding waters. Indonesia has the third largest rainforests in the world, as well as the famous coral triangle, so it is not surprising that you will find great biodiversity here!


You will encounter animals such as the orangutan, the hornbill and the Sumatran tiger. Indonesia’s tropical rainforests are home to a large number of unique animal species, such as the sloth and gibbon. You can also encounter all kinds of special animal species on the islands of Indonesia, such as the Komodo dragon and the hornbill. So there is a lot to experience for nature lovers!

1. Brazil

Brazil is the most biodiverse country in the world. The country has an enormous variety of plant and animal species, from the Amazon rainforests to the Caatinga desert.


In the Amazon basin, for example, you can encounter all kinds of unique animal species, such as the jaguar, the capybara and the piranha. And if you go north to the Caatinga desert, you can encounter the sloth and the hornbill, among others. The country also has a wide variety of birds, such as the ibis and the toucan, and reptiles, such as the anaconda and the coral predatory snake.

Brazil is also interesting in terms of plants: you can see nut trees, water lilies, orchid and wild rubber trees and all kinds of different palms just in the wild!